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The more egalitarian San lived by fishing, hunting, and gathering, while the more hierarchical Khoikhoi (“men of males”) had been primarily herders. For centuries, they lived in small communities of 20 to 80 households associated by blood and marriage; a male chief was marked by a level of wealth, distinctive clothes, and in some cases a number of wives. While these groups as soon as occupied much of what is right now South Africa, newcomers migrating from different parts of Africa progressively displaced them.
The arrival of Europeans in South Africa and their gradual conquest of African peoples, the establishment and exercise of colonial management over Africans, and, later, apartheid all had main impacts on group identity formation and change. Prior to the arrival of European colonists, a variety of ethnic and linguistic teams lived in the southernmost region of the African continent.
The farmer’s lifestyle that was on the core of Afrikaner identity was on the decline, as British ways within the Second Boer War had devastated the livelihood of many rural farmers. Many moved to the cities, joining a multitude of immigrants and native individuals clamoring for industrial employment. Some sought work within the mines, competing for jobs with black South African migrants.
In 1795, as part of a big conflict between Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, and different European states, the British dispatched troops to the Cape, which its merchants trading with India had long relied on for provides. John Barrow, an Englishman who based the Royal Geographical Society, traveled to southern Africa two years later. In An Account of Travels into the Interior of Southern Africa, he declared that the Dutch had neglected their accountability to humanity by treating black South Africans (whom he described as “gentle, rational, and in some extent civilized”) as objects.
For all of their talk of enlightened attitudes toward black South Africans, the British proved themselves to be as interested in colonial conquest and domination as the Boers. As the British and Boers competed for control of the region, the British offered promises of security to some black South African teams threatened by the Boer republics. In apply, these protectorates turned British colonies, the place the leaders progressively lost management over their own territories.
Barrow and others who followed have been excited about possessing the Cape, and they made a moral justification for colonialism by arguing that British colonialism was more humane. In 1803, the Cape Colony was briefly returned to the Dutch, however in 1806, in the course of the Napoleonic Wars, the British took everlasting management.

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